Arbeitstitel Dissertation Meaning

Promotionen 2017

Antonio Machicao y Priemer

  • Titel der Dissertation: NP-Arguments in NPs. An Analysis of German and Spanish Noun Phrases in Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammer
  • Betreuer: Stefan Müller, Manfred Krifka
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: –2017

Promotionen 2016

Sophia Döring

  • Titel der Dissertation: Modal Particles, Discourse Structure and Common Ground Management. Theoretical and Empirical Aspects.
  • Betreuer: Markus Egg, Manfred Krifka, Sophie Repp
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: -2016

Philip Rausch

  • Titel der Dissertation: Predicate-induced semantic prominence in online argument linking: experiments on affectedness and analytical tools
  • Betreuer: Manfred Krifka, Werner Sommer
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2008–2016

Promotionen 2015

Juliane Domke

  • Titel der Dissertation: On the Influence of Age of Acquisition and Proficiency on Second Language Processing
  • Betreuer: Sophie Repp, Rainer Dietrich
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: –2015

Viktor Frei

  • Titel der Dissertation: Sprachstandardisierung in der Softwaredokumentation: Eine Untersuchung von Regulierungsmaßnahmen im Allgemeinen und Schreibregeln im Speziellen
  • Betreuer: Norbert Fries, Jan Mendling
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2008–2015

Nicole Gotzner

  • Titel der Dissertation: Establishing alternative sets
  • Betreuer: Katharina Spalek, Manfred Krifka
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2013–2015

Sven Hänke

  • Titel der Dissertation: Chinesische Zeit - deutsche Zeit. Eine sprachvergleichende Untersuchung metaphorischer Konzeptualisierung.
  • Betreuer: Norbert Fries, Feng Xiaohu
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2006–2015

Franziska Leischner

  • Titel der Dissertation: The influence of visual emotional input properties on the acquisition of verb meanings in 24-month-old German learning children
  • Betreuer: Katharina Spalek, Jürgen Weissenborn
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2008–2015

Tong Liu

  • Titel der Dissertation: "Ich verstehe nur Chinesisch!" - Konstrastierung der chinesischen und deutschen Phonetik/Phonologie als Basis für die Entwicklung von Lehr- und Lernmaterialien für Deutschlernende chinesischer Muttersprache
  • Betreuer: Bernd Pompino-Marschall, Hans Georg Piroth
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2012–2015

Ruppert Mayr

  • Titel der Dissertation: denne uuirdit untar in uuic arhapan... Studien zum Wortschatz des Konfliktes im Althochdeutschen und Altsächsischen
  • Betreuer: Karin Donhauser, Rosemarie Lühr
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2011–2015

Khatuna Shengelia-Manos

  • Titel der Dissertation: Sprache als Identitätsträger: deutschsprachige Minderheit in Nordgriechenland
  • Betreuer: Norbert Fries, Ekaterini Dorfmüller
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2009–2015

Promotionen 2014

Ulrike Freywald

  • Titel der Dissertation: Parataktische Konjunktionen. Zur Syntax und Pragmatik der
    Satzverknüpfung im Deutschen - am Beispiel von obwohl, wobei, während,
    wogegen und dass
  • Betreuerinnen: Karin Donhauser, Heike Wiese
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2009–2014
  • Kontakt: freywald (at) uni-potsdam.de

Elena Gorishneva

  • Titel der Dissertation:The Variety of Functions of the Numeral and Indefinite Marker 'one' in Bulgarian and Russian
  • Betreuer: Manfred Krifka, Luka Szucsich
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2006–2014

Norman Haß

  • Titel der Dissertation: Doppelte Zeitformen im Deutschen und Französischen
  • Betreuer: Karin Donhauser, Carl Vetters
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2009–2014

Anna Jessen

  • Titel der Dissertation: Tageszeitabhängige Leistungsschwankungen in der Verarbeitung anaphorischer Bezüge
  • Betreuer: Manfred Krifka, Rainer Dietrich
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2009–2014

Fereshteh Modarresi

  • Titel der Dissertation: Bare nouns in Persian: Interpretation, Grammar and Prosody
  • Betreuer: Manfred Krifka, Aria Adli
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2011–2014

Chiara Truppi

  • Titel der Dissertation: Bare nouns among and beyond creoles – a syntactic-semantic study of Kriyol Bare Noun Phrases based on a crosslinguistic comparison and the theoretical implications
  • Betreuer: Manfred Krifka, Alain Kihm
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2010–2014

Fabienne Salfner

  • Titel der Dissertation: Bedeutung und informationsstrukturelle Funktion von Adverbialen auf -mäßig
  • Betreuer: Manfred Krifka, Malte Zimmermann (Universität Potsdam)
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2009–2014

Frank Sode

  • Titel der Dissertation: Zur Semantik und Pragmatik des Konjunktivs der Indirektheit im Deutschen
  • Betreuer: Manfred Krifka, Hubert Truckenbrodt
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2009–2014

Promotionen 2004 – 2013

Marcela Adamíková

  • Titel der Dissertation: Kontrast- und Korrekturkonstruktionen in den Westslawinen
  • Betreuer: Ewald Lang, Alicja Nagórko
  • Publikation als: Kontrast oder Korrektur? Prosodische Disambiguierung bei negationshaltigen Adversativ-Konstruktionen in den Westslavinen. Institut für Linguistik, Universität Leipzig, 2004 (Linguistische Arbeitsberichte 82).
  • Kontakt: marcela.adamikova at rz.hu-berlin.de

Bohdan Androshchuk

  • Arbeitstitel: Die Metapher als ideologisches Instrument der Persuasion im deutschsprachigen politischen Diskurs (anhand der Familienpolitik der 16. Legislaturperiode des Deutschen Bundestages)
  • Betreuer: Norbert Fries
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2008–2013
  • Publikation in Vorbereitung
  • Kontakt: bohdan (dot) androshchuk (at) humboldt-viadrina (dot) org

Vladius Borissov

  • Arbeitstitel: Kommunikationsmodus und Strategien der Selbstdarstellung in den nicht-kooperativen Mediengesprächen
  • Betreuer: Norbert Fries
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2004–2006
  • Förderung: Friedrich Naumann-Stiftung
  • Kontakt: vladius_ru at yahoo(dot)de

Elena Briskina

  • Arbeitstitel: Distanzstellung von nominal regierten Präpositionalphrasen im Deutschen
  • Betreuerin: Brigitte Handwerker
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2005–2009
  • Förderung: NaFöG (2005-2007)
  • Kontakt: elena(dot)briskina at rz(dot)hu-berlin(dot)de

Jana Brunner

  • Arbeitstitel: Akustische Kompensation und artikulomotorische Reorganisation bei künstlich veränderten Gaumenformen
  • Betreuer: Bernd Pompino-Marschall, Pascal Perrier (Grenoble)
  • Publikation in Vorbereitung
  • Kontakt: brunner at zas(dot)gwz-berlin(dot)de

Doreen Bryant

  • Titel der Dissertation: Koordinationsellipsen im Spracherwerb: Die Verarbeitung potentieller Gapping-Strukturen
  • Betreuer: Jürgen Weissenborn, Manfred Krifka, Tom Roeper (University of Massachusetts)
  • Publikation als: Koordinationsellipsen im Spracherwerb: Die Verarbeitung potentieller Gapping-Strukturen. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 2006 (studia grammatica  64). 
  • Kontakt

Christian Chiarcos

  • Arbeitstitel: Mentale Salienz und sprachliche Form: Pragmatische Aspekte der Maschinellen Textgenerierung
  • Betreuer: Manfred Stede (Universität Potsdam), Anke Lüdeling
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2003–2010
  • Förderung: DFG
  • Kontakt: chiarcos at ling(dot)uni-potsdam.de, myrddin at cs(dot)tu-berlin(dot)de

Anna Czypionka

  • Arbeitstitel: Interplay of semantic verb class and animacy in representation building
  • Betreuer: Katharina Spalek, Manfred Krifka und Isabell Wartenburger
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2008–2013
  • Förderung: Doktorandenstipendium (ZAS)
  • Kontakt: anna(dot)czypionka at web(dot)de

Katrin Dohlus

  • Arbeitstitel: On the Adaptation of Front Rounded Vowels into Japanese
  • Betreuer: Norbert Fries
  • Publikation in Vorbereitung
  • Kontakt: katochan_jp at hotmail(dot)com, katrin_dohlus at hotmail(dot)com

Olga Egorova

  • Titel der Dissertation: Adverbiale Kasus des Deutschen: Eine Untersuchung der Genitiv und Akkusativ-DPs in adverbialer Funktion
  • Betreuer: Norbert Fries
  • Publikation: online
  • Kontakt: olegorova at gmx.de

Rainer Fecht

  • Arbeitstitel: Neoakut in der slavischen Wortbildung: Der "volja-Typ"
  • Betreuer: Wolfgang Hock
  • Publikation in Vorbereitung
  • Kontakt: rainer(dot)fecht at rz(dot)hu-berlin(dot)de 

Susanne Fuchs

  • Titel der Dissertation: Articulatory Correlates of the “voicing” Contrast in German Alveolar Obstruent Production
  • Betreuer: Bernd Pompino-Marschall, James M. Scobbie, Alan Wrench
  • Publikation in Vorbereitung
  • Kontakt: fuchs at zas.gwz-berlin.de

Ljudmila Geist

  • Titel der Dissertation: Kopulasätze an der Syntax/Semantik-Schnittstelle: Die russische Variante
  • Betreuer: Ewald Lang
  • Publikation als: Die Kopula und ihre Komplement: Zur Kompositionalität in Kopulasätzen. Tübingen: Niemeyer, 2006 (Linguistische Arbeiten 502).
  • Kontakt: ljudmila.geist at ling.uni-stuttgart.de

Felix Golcher

  • Titel der Dissertation: Wiederholungen in Texten. Segmentieren und Klassifizieren mit vollständigen Substringfrequenzen
  • Betreuer: Anke Lüdeling, Ulf Leser
  • Förderung: NaFöG
  • Kontakt

Juliana Goschler (geb. Mehls)

  • Titel der Dissertation: Metaphern für das Gehirn und seine Funktionen
  • Betreuer: Norbert Fries
  • Publikation: Metaphern für das Gehirn. Eine kognitiv-linguistische Untersuchung. Berlin: Frank & Timme 2008
  • Kontakt: juliana.mehls at student.hu-berlin.de

Patrick Grommes

Adriana Hanulíková

  • Arbeitstitel: Lexical segmentation in Slovak and German
  • Betreuer: Rainer Dietrich,  James McQueen (MPI Nijmegen)
  • Publikation in Vorbereitung

Hagen Hirschmann

  • Arbeitstitel: Modifikatoren im Deutschen
  • Betreuer: Anke Lüdeling, Detmar Meurers
  • Publikation als: Modifikatoren im Deutschen. Ihre Klassifikation und varietätenspezifische Verwendung. Tübingen; Stauffenburg, 2015.
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2007-2013
  • wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter
  • Kontakt: hirschhx at rz(dot)hu-berlin(dot)de

Sabine Koppetsch

  • Titel der Dissertation: Lautsprachproduktion nach Glossektomie und orofacialer Rekonstruktion
  • Betreuer: Bernd Pompino-Marschall
  • Publikation als: Orofaziale Rekonstruktionen nach Zungen- und Mundbodenteilresektionen. Berlin: Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Berlin, 2004.
  • Kontakt: sabinek at zas.gwz-berlin.de

Kristina Kotcheva-Rießler

  • Arbeitstitel: Adversative Konnektoren in den skandinavischen Sprachen: Synchronie und Diachronie, Zeitraum
  • Betreuer: Jurij Kusmenko, Ewald Lang
  • Kontakt: kristina(dot)kotcheva at rz(dot)hu-berlin(dot)de

Sabine Krämer

  • Titel der Dissertation: Die Konstruktion werden + Infinitiv: Synchroner Status und diachrone Perspektive
  • Betreuer: Ewald Lang, Karin Donhauser, Wolfgang Hock
  • Publikation als: Synchrone Analyse als Fenster zur Diachronie: Die Grammatikalisierung von „werden“ + Infinitiv. München: Lincom, 2005.

Alice Lana

  • Arbeitstitel: Die Abwechslung zwischen Kausativ und Ergativ im gesprochenen brasilianischen Portugiesisch
  • Betreuer: Norbert Fries
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2002–2005
  • Förderung: DAAD
  • Kontakt: alicelana at hotmail.com

Iryna Makulkina

  • Betreuer: Norbert Fries
  • Publikation: Metaphorisches Russlandbild in den deutschen Printmedien. Frankfurt a.M. 2013.

Lilia Mironovschi

  • Arbeitstitel: Komplimente und Komplimenterwiderungen im Russischenund im Deutschen
  • Betreuer: Norbert Fries
  • Publikation: Metaphern für das Gehirn. Eine kognitiv-linguistische Untersuchung. Berlin: Frank & Timme 2008
  • Kontakt: h0444jq6 at rz(dot)hu-berlin(dot)de

Sei Miwa

  • Arbeitstitel: Semantik der Partikelverben mit „an-“ im Deutschen
  • Betreuer: Norbert Fries
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2004–2007
  • Förderung: Mail Rotary-Stiftung Japan
  • Kontakt: heilige75 at yahoo(dot)co(dot)jp

Max Möller

  • Arbeitstitel: Verwirrt (ge)worden? Partizipien 2 von Experiencer-Objekt-Verben zwischen verbaler und adjektivischer Verwendung
  • Betreuerinnen: Brigitte Handwerker, Claudia Maienborn
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2005–2013
  • Kontakt: max(dot)moeller at hu-berlin(dot)de

Hans G. Müller

  • Titel der Dissertation: Regelwissen und Anwendungskompetenz im Orthographieunterricht: Eine lernpsychologisch-didaktische Untersuchung zur Relation von orthographischen Wissensbeständen und ihrer praktischen Anwendbarkeit im Schreibprozess am Beispiel der Kommasetzung
  • Betreuer: Norbert Fries
  • Publikation als: Zum "Komma nach Gefühl". Implizite und explizite Kommakompetenz von Berliner Schülerinnen und Schülern im Vergleich. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2007.
  • Kontakt: hans-g(dot)mueller at gmx(dot)de

Dan Ni

  • Arbeitstitel: Somatismen im Chinesischen und im Deutschen
  • Betreuer: Norbert Fries
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2007-2013
  • Förderung: Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung
  • Publikation: Metaphern und Metonymien in deutschen und chinesischen Somatismen. Hamburg 2011.
  • Kontakt: chinageschaeft-dan(dot)ni at hotmail(dot)com

Constanze Niederhaus

  • Arbeitstitel: Nutzung linguistischer Analysen von Fachsprachen für die Konzeption berufsbezogener Sprachfördermaßnahmen
  • Publikation als: Fachsprachlichkeit in Lehrbüchern. Korpuslinguistische Analysen von Fachtexten der beruflichen Bildung. Münster: Waxmann, 2011.
  • BetreuerInnen: Jürgen van Buer (HU Erziehungswissenschaften), Anke Lüdeling

Andreas Nolda (verteidigt an der Freien Universität)

  • Titel der Dissertation: Integriertes Rahmenthema: Zur Syntax und Semantik der ‚gespaltenen Topikalisierung‘ im Deutschen
  • Betreuer: Hans-Heinrich Lieb (FU Berlin), Norbert Fries
  • Publikation als: Die Thema-Integration: Syntax und Semantik der 'gespaltenen Topikalisierung' im Deutschen. Studien zur deutschen Grammatik 72. Tübingen: Stauffenburg, 2007.
  • Kontakt: nolda at lit.u-szeged.hu

Cristina Onesti (verteidigt an der Universität von Turin)

  • Arbeitstitel: German and Hungarian Particle Verbs and Aspect and Aktionsart Meaning: Hypothesis of Grammaticalization
  • Betreuerinnen: Mario Squartini (Università di Torino), Anke Lüdeling
  • Publikation als: in Vorbereitung
  • Kontakt: cristina_onesti at yahoo(dot)it

Daniel Pape

  • Arbeitstitel: Grundfrequenzphänomene im Deutschen in der Verbindung von Sprachproduktion und Sprachrezeption
  • Betreuer: Bernd Pompino-Marschall
  • Publikation in Vorbereitung
  • Kontakt: pape at zas(dot)gwz-berlin(dot)de

Svetlana Petrova

  • Titel der Dissertation: Entwicklung des Konjunktivs im Deutschen
  • Betreuerin: Karin Donhauser
  • Erschienen als Buch: Die Interaktion von Tempus und Modus. Studien zur Entwicklungsgeschichte des deutschen Konjunktivs. Heidelberg: Winter.
  • Kontakt

Kilu von Prince

  • Titel der Dissertation: A Grammar of Daakaka
  • Betreuer: Manfred Krifka
  • Die Dissertation ist auf dem eDoc-Server verfügbar.
  • Kontakt: prince(at)zas.gwz-berlin.de

Anna Renner

  • Arbeitstitel: Das Erlernen einer Fremdsprache nach der kritischen Periode: Der Erwerb eines neuen Genussystems
  • Betreuerin: Katharina Spalek
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2008-2014
  • Förderung: FAZIT-Stiftung (Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung)
  • Kontakt: anna(dot)renner at student(dot)hu-berlin(dot)de

Sophie Repp

  • Titel der Dissertation: Interpreting Ellipsis: The Changeable Presence of the Negation in Gapping
  • Betreuer: Manfred Krifka, Gisbert Fanselow (Universität Potsdam)
  • Publikation: Negation in Gapping. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.
  • Kontakt

Eva Schlachter

  • Arbeitstitel: Der linke Satzrand im Althochdeutschen
  • Betreuerin: Karin Donhauser
  • wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin
  • Publikation als: Syntax und Informationsstruktur im Althochdeutschen: Untersuchungen am Beispiel der Isidor-Gruppe. (Germanistische Bibliothek 45.) Heidelberg: Winter, 2013.
  • Kontakt: eva(dot)schlachter at rz(dot)hu-berlin(dot)de

Barbara Schlücker

  • Titel der Dissertation: Diskurs im Lexikon. Eine Untersuchung der Kopula 'bleiben'
  • Betreuer: Claudia Maienborn, Ewald Lang
  • Publikation als: Diskurs im Lexikon. Eine Untersuchung der Kopula 'bleiben'. Tübingen: Stauffenburg (= Studien zur deutschen Grammatik Band 73), 2007.
  • Kontakt: barbara dot schluecker at fu-berlin dot de

Helga Schulze-Neufeld

  • Arbeitstitel: Grüßen im Russischen und im Deutschen. Eine kontrastive Analyse
  • Betreuer: Norbert Fries
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2008-2013
  • Förderung: Friedrich-Naumann-Stiftung
  • Publikation: Grüßen im Deutschen und Russischen: Eine kontrastive interferenzstatistisch-empirische Analyse. Frankfurt a.M. 2012.
  • Kontakt: helga(dot)schulze-neufeld at web(dot)de

Nicole Schumacher

  • Titel der Dissertation: Perfekte Tempora in Deutsch als Fremdsprache? Ein Tempusmodell für Lern- und Lehrzwecke unter besonderer Berücksichtigung kontrastiver Analysen zu den deutschen und italienischen Vergangenheitstempora
  • Betreuerin: Brigitte Handwerker, Renate Musan
  • Publikation als: Tempus als Lerngegenstand: Ein Modell für Deutsch als Fremdsprache und seine Anwendung für italienische Lernende. Tübingen: Narr, 2005 (Tübinger Beiträge zur Linguistik 487).
  • Kontakt

Melanie Weirich

  • Arbeitstitel: Articulatory and Acoustic Inter-Speaker Variability in Twins’ Speech: The influence of Nature and Nurture
  • Betreuer: Bernd Pompino-Marschall
  • Wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin ZAS Berlin
  • Kontakt: weirich at zas(dot)gwz-berlin(dot)de

Benjamin Weiss

  • Arbeitstitel: Sprechtempoabhängige Aussprachevariationen und deren hörerseitige Verarbeitung
  • Betreuer: Bernd Pompino-Marschall, Caroline Féry (Universität Potsdam)
  • Publikation in Vorbereitung
  • Kontakt: benjamin(dot)weiss at rz(dot)hu-berlin(dot)de

Yueh-Ping Yu

  • Arbeitstitel: Semantische Analyse kulturspezifischer Ausdrücke im Chinesischen – am Beispiel des Höflichkeits- und Gesichtskonzeptes aus Sicht interkultureller Kommunikation und Didaktik
  • Betreuer: Norbert Fries
  • Bearbeitungszeitraum: 2005–2013
  • Publikation in Vorbereitung
  • Kontakt: yp(dot)yu at web(dot)de

Lars Erik Zeige

  • Arbeitstitel: Sprachwandel und Theorie sozialer Systeme
  • Betreuerin: Karin Donhauser
  • wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter
  • Publikation als: Sprachwandel und soziale Systeme. (Germanistische Linguistik Monographien 27.) Hildesheim: Olms, 2011.
  • Kontakt: lars(dot)zeige at rz(dot)hu-berlin(dot)de

Amir Zeldes

  • Arbeitstitel: Productivity in Argument Selection. A Usage-Based Approach to Lexical Choice in Syntactic Slots
  • Betreuer: Anke Lüdeling, Stefan Th. Gries
  • Publikation als: Productivity in Argument Selection. From Morphology to Syntax. (Trends in Linguistics: Studies and Monographs 260.) Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter, 2012. 
  • Kontakt: amir(dot)zeldes at rz(dot)hu-berlin(dot)de

Sabine Zerbian

  • Titel der Dissertation: Expression of Information Structure in Northern Sotho (Bantu)
  • Betreuer: Manfred Krifka, Hubert Truckenbrodt (Universität Tübingen)
  • Publikation in Vorbereitung
  • Kontakt: zerbian at zas.gwz-berlin.de

Wei Zhang

  • Arbeitstitel: Deutsche und chinesische Kontakanzeigen - Eine Textgattung im Kulturvergleich
  • Betreuer: Norbert Fries
  • Publikation: "Frösche küssen" oder "meine Vorbestimmung suchen"? Deutsche und chinesische Kontaktanzeigen - eine Textgattung im Kulturvergleich. Frankfurt a.M. 2009.
  • Kontakt: ulla_zhangwei at yahoo(dot)de

Korrekturen und Ergänzungen bitte an Malte Belz.

For other uses, see Thesis (disambiguation).

"Dissertation" redirects here. For the novel, see The Dissertation.

A thesis or dissertation[1] is a document submitted in support of candidature for an academic degree or professional qualification presenting the author's research and findings.[2] In some contexts, the word "thesis" or a cognate is used for part of a bachelor's or master's course, while "dissertation" is normally applied to a doctorate, while in other contexts, the reverse is true.[3] The term graduate thesis is sometimes used to refer to both master's theses and doctoral dissertations.[4]

The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis or dissertation can vary by country, university, or program, and the required minimum study period may thus vary significantly in duration.

The word "dissertation" can at times be used to describe a treatise without relation to obtaining an academic degree. The term "thesis" is also used to refer to the general claim of an essay or similar work.

Etymology[edit]

The term "thesis" comes from the Greek θέσις, meaning "something put forth", and refers to an intellectual proposition. "Dissertation" comes from the Latindissertātiō, meaning "path".

Structure and presentation style[edit]

Structure[edit]

A thesis (or dissertation) may be arranged as a thesis by publication or a monograph, with or without appended papers, respectively, though many graduate programs allow candidates to submit a curated collection of published papers. An ordinary monograph has a title page, an abstract, a table of contents, comprising the various chapters (e.g., introduction, literature review, methodology, results, discussion), and a bibliography or (more usually) a references section. They differ in their structure in accordance with the many different areas of study (arts, humanities, social sciences, technology, sciences, etc.) and the differences between them. In a thesis by publication, the chapters constitute an introductory and comprehensive review of the appended published and unpublished article documents.

Dissertations normally report on a research project or study, or an extended analysis of a topic. The structure of a thesis or dissertation explains the purpose, the previous research literature which impinges on the topic of the study, the methods used and the findings of the project. Most world universities use a multiple chapter format : a) an introduction, which introduces the research topic, the methodology, as well as its scope and significance; b) a literature review, reviewing relevant literature and showing how this has informed the research issue; c) a methodology chapter, explaining how the research has been designed and why the research methods/population/data collection and analysis being used have been chosen; d) a findings chapter, outlining the findings of the research itself; e) an analysis and discussion chapter, analysing the findings and discussing them in the context of the literature review (this chapter is often divided into two—analysis and discussion); f) a conclusion.[5][6]

Style[edit]

Degree-awarding institutions often define their own house style that candidates have to follow when preparing a thesis document. In addition to institution-specific house styles, there exist a number of field-specific, national, and international standards and recommendations for the presentation of theses, for instance ISO 7144.[2] Other applicable international standards include ISO 2145 on section numbers, ISO 690 on bibliographic references, and ISO 31 on quantities or units.

Some older house styles specify that front matter (title page, abstract, table of content, etc.) uses a separate page number sequence from the main text, using Roman numerals. The relevant international standard[2] and many newer style guides recognize that this book design practice can cause confusion where electronic document viewers number all pages of a document continuously from the first page, independent of any printed page numbers. They, therefore, avoid the traditional separate number sequence for front matter and require a single sequence of Arabic numerals starting with 1 for the first printed page (the recto of the title page).

Presentation requirements, including pagination, layout, type and color of paper, use of acid-free paper (where a copy of the dissertation will become a permanent part of the library collection), paper size, order of components, and citation style, will be checked page by page by the accepting officer before the thesis is accepted and a receipt is issued.

However, strict standards are not always required. Most Italian universities, for example, have only general requirements on the character size and the page formatting, and leave much freedom for the actual typographic details.[7]

Thesis committee[edit]

A thesis or dissertation committee is a committee that supervises a student's dissertation. In the US, these committees usually consist of a primary supervisor or advisor and two or more committee members, who supervise the progress of the dissertation and may also act as the examining committee, or jury, at the oral examination of the thesis (see below).

At most universities, the committee is chosen by the student in conjunction with his or her primary adviser, usually after completion of the comprehensive examinations or prospectus meeting, and may consist of members of the comps committee. The committee members are doctors in their field (whether a PhD or other designation) and have the task of reading the dissertation, making suggestions for changes and improvements, and sitting in on the defense. Sometimes, at least one member of the committee must be a professor in a department that is different from that of the student.

Regional and degree-specific practices and terminologies[edit]

Argentina[edit]

In the Latin American docta, the academic dissertation can be referred to as different stages inside the academic program that the student is seeking to achieve into a recognized Argentine University, in all the cases the students must develop original contribution in the chosen fields by means of several paper work and essays that comprehend the body of the thesis.[8] Correspondingly to the academic degree, the last phase of an academic thesis is called in Spanish a defensa de grado, defensa magistral or defensa doctoral in cases in which the university candidate is finalizing his or her licentiate, master's, or PhD program. According to a committee resolution, the dissertation can be approved or rejected by an academic committee consisting of the thesis director, the thesis coordinator, and at least one evaluator from another recognized university in which the student is pursuing his or her academic program. All the dissertation referees must already have achieved at least the academic degree that the candidate is trying to reach.[9]

Canada[edit]

At English-speaking Canadian universities, writings presented in fulfillment of undergraduate coursework requirements are normally called papers, term papers or essays. A longer paper or essay presented for completion of a 4-year bachelor's degree is sometimes called a major paper. High-quality research papers presented as the empirical study of a "postgraduate" consecutive bachelor with Honours or Baccalaureatus Cum Honore degree are called thesis (Honours Seminar Thesis). Major papers presented as the final project for a master's degree are normally called thesis; and major papers presenting the student's research towards a doctoral degree are called theses or dissertations.

At Canadian universities under the French influenced system,[10] students may have a choice between presenting a "mémoire"', which is a shorter synthetic work (roughly 75 pages) and a thèse which is one hundred pages or more.[citation needed] A synthetic monograph associated with doctoral work is referred to as a "thèse". See also compilation thesis. Either work can be awarded a "mention d'honneur" (excellence) as a result of the decision by the examination committee, although these are rare.

A typical undergraduate paper or essay might be forty pages. Master's theses are approximately one hundred pages. PhD theses are usually over two hundred pages. This may vary greatly by discipline, program, college, or university. However, normally the required minimum study period is primarily depending on the complexity or quality of research requirements.

Theses Canada acquires and preserves a comprehensive collection of Canadian theses at Library and Archives Canada' (LAC) through partnership with Canadian universities who participate in the program.[11]

Croatia[edit]

At most university faculties in Croatia, a degree is obtained by defending a thesis after having passed all the classes specified in the degree programme. In the Bologna system, the bachelor's thesis, called završni rad (literally "final work" or "concluding work") is defended after 3 years of study and is about 30 pages long. Most students with bachelor's degrees continue onto master's programmes which end with a master's thesis called diplomski rad (literally "diploma work" or "graduate work"). The term dissertation is used for a doctoral degree paper (doktorska disertacija).

Czech Republic[edit]

In the Czech Republic, higher education is completed by passing all classes remaining to the educational compendium for given degree and defending a thesis. For bachelors programme the thesis is called bakalářská práce (bachelors thesis), for master's degrees and also doctor of medicine or dentistry degrees it is the diplomová práce (master's thesis), and for Philosophiae doctor (PhD.) degree it is dissertation dizertační práce. Thesis for so called Higher-Professional School (Vyšší odborná škola, VOŠ) is called absolventská práce.

Finland[edit]

The following types of thesis are used in Finland (names in Finnish/Swedish):

  • Kandidaatintutkielma/kandidatavhandling is the dissertation associated with lower-level academic degrees (bachelor's degree), and at universities of applied science.
  • Pro gradu(-tutkielma)/(avhandling )pro gradu, colloquially referred to simply as 'gradu', is the dissertation for master's degrees, which make up the majority of degrees conferred in Finland, and this is therefore the most common type of thesis submitted in the country. The equivalent for engineering and architecture students is diplomityö/diplomarbete.
  • The highest-level theses are called lisensiaatintutkielma/licentiatavhandling and (tohtorin)väitöskirja/doktorsavhandling, for licentiate and doctoral degrees, respectively.

France[edit]

In France, the academic dissertation or thesis is called a thèse and it is reserved for the final work of doctoral candidates. The minimum page length is generally (and not formally) 100 pages (or about 400,000 characters), but is usually several times longer (except for technical theses and for "exact sciences" such as physics and maths).

To complete a master's degree in research, a student is required to write a mémoire, the French equivalent of a master's thesis in other higher education systems.

The word dissertation in French is reserved for shorter (1,000–2,000 words), more generic academic treatises.

The defense is called a soutenance.

Germany[edit]

In Germany, an academic thesis is called Abschlussarbeit or, more specifically, the basic name of the degree complemented by -arbeit (e.g., Diplomarbeit, Masterarbeit, Doktorarbeit). For bachelor's and master's degrees, the name can alternatively be complemented by -thesis instead (e.g., Bachelorthesis).

Length is often given in page count and depends upon departments, faculties, and fields of study. A bachelor's thesis is often 40–60 pages long, a diploma thesis and a master's thesis usually 60–100. The required submission for a doctorate is called a Dissertation or Doktorarbeit. The submission for a Habilitation, which is an academic qualification, not an academic degree, is called Habilitationsschrift, not Habilitationsarbeit. PhD by publication is becoming increasingly common in many fields of study[citation needed].

A doctoral degree is often earned with multiple levels of a Latin honors remark for the thesis ranging from summa cum laude (best) to rite (duly). A thesis can also be rejected with a Latin remark (non-rite, non-sufficit or worst as sub omni canone). Bachelor's and master's theses receive numerical grades from 1.0 (best) to 5.0 (failed).

India[edit]

In India the thesis defense is called a viva voce (Latin for "by live voice") examination (viva in short). Involved in the viva are two examiners and the candidate. One examiner is an academic from the candidate's own university department (but not one of the candidate's supervisors) and the other is an external examiner from a different university.[12]

In India, PG Qualifications such as MSc Physics accompanies submission of dissertation in Part I and submission of a Project (a working model of an innovation) in Part II. Engineering qualifications such as Diploma, BTech or B.E., MTech or M.Des. also involves submission of dissertation. In all the cases, the dissertation can be extended for summer internship at certain research and development organizations or also as PhD synopsis.

Indonesia[edit]

In Indonesia, the term thesis is used specifically to refer to master's theses. The undergraduate thesis is called skripsi, while the doctoral dissertation is called disertasi. In general, those three terms are usually called as tugas akhir (final assignment), which is mandatory for the completion of a degree. Undergraduate students usually begin to write their final assignment in their third, fourth or fifth enrollment year, depends on the requirements of their respective disciplines and universities. In some universities, students are required to write a proposal skripsi, proposal thesis or thesis proposal before they could write their final assignment. If the thesis proposal is considered to fulfill the qualification by the academic examiners, students then may proceed to write their final assignment.

Italy[edit]

In Italy there are normally three types of thesis. In order of complexity: one for the Laurea (equivalent to the UK Bachelor's Degree), another one for the Laurea Magistrale (equivalent to the UK Master's Degree) and then a thesis to complete the Dottorato di Ricerca (PhD). Thesis requirements vary greatly between degrees and disciplines, ranging from as low as 3–4 ECTS credits to more than 30. Thesis work is mandatory for the completion of a degree.

Malaysia[edit]

Malaysian universities often follow the British model for dissertations and degrees. However, a few universities follow the United States model for theses and dissertations. Some public universities have both British and US style PhD programmes. Branch campuses of British, Australian and Middle East universities in Malaysia use the respective models of the home campuses.

Pakistan[edit]

In Pakistan, at undergraduate level the thesis is usually called final year project, as it is completed in the senior year of the degree, the name project usually implies that the work carried out is less extensive than a thesis and bears lesser credit hours too. The undergraduate level project is presented through an elaborate written report and a presentation to the advisor, a board of faculty members and students. At graduate level however, i.e. in MS, some universities allow students to accomplish a project of 6 credits or a thesis of 9 credits, at least one publication [citation needed] is normally considered enough for the awarding of the degree with project and is considered mandatory for the awarding of a degree with thesis. A written report and a public thesis defense is mandatory, in the presence of a board of senior researchers, consisting of members from an outside organization or a university. A PhD candidate is supposed to accomplish extensive research work to fulfill the dissertation requirements with international publications being a mandatory requirement. The defense of the research work is done publicly.

Philippines[edit]

In the Philippines, an academic thesis is named by the degree, such as bachelor/undergraduate thesis or masteral thesis. However, in Philippine English, the term doctorate is typically replaced with doctoral (as in the case of "doctoral dissertation"), though in official documentation the former is still used. The terms thesis and dissertation are commonly used interchangeably in everyday language yet it generally understood that a thesis refers to bachelor/undergraduate and master academic work while a dissertation is named for doctorate work.

The Philippine system is influenced by American collegiate system, in that it requires a research project to be submitted before being allowed to write a thesis. This is mostly given as a prerequisite writing course to the actual thesis and is accomplished in the term period before; supervision is provided by one professor assigned to a class. This is later to be presented in front of an academic panel, often the entire faculty of an academic department, with their recommendations contributing to the acceptance, revision, or rejection of the initial topic. In addition, the presentation of the research project will help the candidate choose their primary thesis adviser.

An undergraduate thesis is completed in the final year of the degree alongside existing seminar (lecture) or laboratory courses, and is often divided into two presentations: proposal and thesis presentations (though this varies across universities), whereas a master thesis or doctorate dissertation is accomplished in the last term alone and is defended once. In most universities, a thesis is required for the bestowment of a degree to a candidate alongside a number of units earned throughout their academic period of stay, though for practice and skills-based degrees a practicum and a written report can be achieved instead. The examination board often consists of 3 to 5 examiners, often professors in a university (with a Masters or PhD degree) depending on the university's examination rules. Required word length, complexity, and contribution to scholarship varies widely across universities in the country.

Poland[edit]

In Poland, a bachelor's degree usually requires a praca licencjacka (bachelor's thesis) or the similar level degree in engineering requires a praca inżynierska (engineer's thesis/bachelor's thesis), the master's degree requires a praca magisterska (master's thesis). The academic dissertation for a PhD is called a dysertacja or praca doktorska. The submission for the Habilitation is called praca habilitacyjna" or dysertacja habilitacyjna". Thus the term dysertacja is reserved for PhD and Habilitation degrees. All the theses need to be "defended" by the author during a special examination for the given degree. Examinations for PhD and Habilitation degrees are public.

Portugal and Brazil[edit]

In Portugal and Brazil, a dissertation (dissertação) is required for completion of a master or PhD degree. The defense is done in a public presentation in which teachers, students, and the general public can participate. For the PhD a thesis (tese) is presented for defense in a public exam. The exam typically extends over 3 hours. The examination board typically involves 5 to 6 scholars (including the advisor) or other experts with a PhD degree (generally at least half of them must be external to the university where the candidate defends the thesis, but may depend on the University). Each university / faculty defines the length of these documents, but typical numbers of pages are around 60–80 for MSc and 150–250 for PhD.

Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, Ukraine[edit]

In Russia, Kazakhstan, Belarus, and Ukraine an academic dissertation or thesis is called what can be literally translated as a "master's degree work" (thesis), whereas the word dissertation is reserved for doctoral theses (Candidate of Sciences). To complete a master's degree, a student is required to write a thesis and to then defend the work publicly. Length of this manuscript usually is given in page count and depends upon educational institution, its departments, faculties, and fields of study[citation needed]

Slovenia[edit]

At universities in Slovenia, an academic thesis called diploma thesis is a prerequisite for completing undergraduate studies. The thesis used to be 40–60 pages long, but has been reduced to 20–30 pages in new Bologna process programmes. To complete Master's studies, a candidate must write magistrsko delo (Master's thesis) that is longer and more detailed than the undergraduate thesis. The required submission for the doctorate is called doktorska disertacija (doctoral dissertation). In pre Bologna programmes students were able to skip the preparation and presentation of a Master's thesis and continue straightforward towards doctorate.

Slovakia[edit]

In Slovakia, higher education is completed by defending a thesis, which is called bachelors thesis "bakalárska práca" for bachelors programme, master's thesis or "diplomová práca" for master's degrees and also doctor of medicine or dentistry degrees and dissertation "dizertačná práca" for Philosophiae doctor (PhD.) degree.

Sweden[edit]

In Sweden, there are different types of theses. Practices and definitions vary between fields but commonly include the C thesis/Bachelor thesis, which corresponds to 15 HP or 10 weeks of independent studies, D thesis/'/Magister/one year master's thesis, which corresponds to 15 HP or 10 weeks of independent studies and E Thesis/two-year master's thesis, which corresponds to 30 HP or 20 weeks of independent studies. After that there are two types of post graduate degrees, Licentiate dissertation and PhD dissertation. A licentiate degree is approximately "half a PhD" in terms of size and scope of the thesis. Swedish PhD studies should in theory last for four years, including course work and thesis work, but as many PhD students also teach, the PhD often takes longer to complete.

United Kingdom[edit]

Outside the academic community, the terms thesis and dissertation are interchangeable. At universities in the United Kingdom, the term thesis is usually associated with PhD/EngD (doctoral) and research master's degrees, while dissertation is the more common term for a substantial project submitted as part of a taught master's degree or an undergraduate degree (e.g. BA, BSc, BMus, BEd, BEng etc.).

Thesis word lengths may differ by faculty/department and are set by individual universities.

A wide range of supervisory arrangements can be found in the British academy, from single supervisors (more usual for undergraduate and Masters level work) to supervisory teams of up to three supervisors. In teams, there will often be a Director of Studies, usually someone with broader experience (perhaps having passed some threshold of successful supervisions). The Director may be involved with regular supervision along with the other supervisors, or may have more of an oversight role, with the other supervisors taking on the more day-to-day responsibilities of supervision.

United States[edit]

In some U.S. doctoral programs, the "dissertation" can take up the major part of the student's total time spent (along with two or three years of classes), and may take years of full-time work to complete. At most universities, dissertation is the term for the required submission for the doctorate, and thesis refers only to the master's degree requirement.

Thesis is also used to describe a cumulative project for a bachelor's degree, and is more common at selective colleges and universities, or for those seeking admittance to graduate school or to obtain an honors academic designation. These are called "senior projects" or "senior theses;" they are generally done in the senior year near graduation after having completed other courses, the independent study period, and the internship or student teaching period (the completion of most of the requirements before the writing of the paper ensures adequate knowledge and aptitude for the challenge). Unlike a dissertation or master's thesis, they are not as long, they do not require a novel contribution to knowledge, or even a very narrow focus on a set subtopic. Like them, they can be lengthy and require months of work, they require supervision by at least one professor adviser, they must be focused on a certain area of knowledge, and they must use an appreciable amount of scholarly citations. They may or may not be defended before a committee, but usually are not; there is generally no preceding examination before the writing of the paper, except for at very few colleges. Because of the nature of the graduate thesis or dissertation having to be more narrow and more novel, the result of original research, these usually have a smaller proportion of the work that is cited from other sources, though the fact that they are lengthier may mean they still have total citations.

Specific undergraduate courses, especially writing-intensive courses or courses taken by upperclassmen, may also require one or more extensive written assignments referred to variously as theses, essays, or papers. Increasingly, high schools are requiring students to complete a senior project or senior thesis on a chosen topic during the final year as a prerequisite for graduation.[13] The extended essay component of the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme, offered in a growing number of American high schools, is another example of this trend.

Generally speaking, a dissertation is judged as to whether or not it makes an original and unique contribution to scholarship. Lesser projects (a master's thesis, for example) are judged by whether or not they demonstrate mastery of available scholarship in the presentation of an idea.[dubious– discuss]

The required complexity or quality of research of a thesis may vary significantly among universities or programs.

Thesis examinations[edit]

One of the requirements for certain advanced degrees is often an oral examination (a.k.a. viva voce examination or just viva). This examination normally occurs after the dissertation is finished but before it is submitted to the university, and may comprise a presentation (often public) by the student and questions posed by an examining committee or jury. In North America, an initial oral examination in the field of specialization may take place just before the student settles down to work on the dissertation. An additional oral exam may take place after the dissertation is completed and is known as a thesis or dissertation "defense," which at some universities may be a mere formality and at others may result in the student being required to make significant revisions. In the UK and certain other English-speaking countries, an oral examination is called a viva voce.

Examination results[edit]

The result of the examination may be given immediately following deliberation by the examiners (in which case the candidate may immediately be considered to have received his or her degree), or at a later date, in which case the examiners may prepare a defense report that is forwarded to a Board or Committee of Postgraduate Studies, which then officially recommends the candidate for the degree.

Potential decisions (or "verdicts") include:

  • Accepted/pass with no corrections.
The thesis is accepted as presented. A grade may be awarded, though in many countries PhDs are not graded at all, and in others, only one of the theoretically possible grades (the highest) is ever used in practice.
  • The thesis must be revised.
Revisions (for example, correction of numerous grammatical or spelling errors; clarification of concepts or methodology; an addition of sections) are required. One or more members of the jury or the thesis supervisor will make the decision on the acceptability of revisions and provide written confirmation that they have been satisfactorily completed. If, as is often the case, the needed revisions are relatively modest, the examiners may all sign the thesis with the verbal understanding that the candidate will review the revised thesis with his or her supervisor before submitting the completed version.
  • Extensive revision required.
The thesis must be revised extensively and undergo the evaluation and defense process again from the beginning with the same examiners. Problems may include theoretical or methodological issues. A candidate who is not recommended for the degree after the second defense must normally withdraw from the program.
The thesis is unacceptable and the candidate must withdraw from the program. This verdict is given only when the thesis requires major revisions and when the examination makes it clear that the candidate is incapable of making such revisions.

At most North American institutions the latter two verdicts are extremely rare, for two reasons. First, to obtain the status of doctoral candidates, graduate students typically write a qualifying examination or comprehensive examination, which often includes an oral defense. Students who pass the qualifying examination are deemed capable of completing scholarly work independently and are allowed to proceed with working on a dissertation. Second, since the thesis supervisor (and the other members of the advisory committee) will normally have reviewed the thesis extensively before recommending the student proceed to the defense, such an outcome would be regarded as a major failure not only on the part of the candidate but also by the candidate's supervisor (who should have recognized the substandard quality of the dissertation long before the defense was allowed to take place). It is also fairly rare for a thesis to be accepted without any revisions; the most common outcome of a defense is for the examiners to specify minor revisions (which the candidate typically completes in a few days or weeks).

At universities on the British pattern it is not uncommon for theses at the viva stage to be subject to major revisions in which a substantial rewrite is required, sometimes followed by a new viva. Very rarely, the thesis may be awarded the lesser degree of M.Phil (Master of Philosophy) instead, preventing the candidate from resubmitting the thesis.

Australia[edit]

In Australia, doctoral theses are usually examined by three examiners although some, like the Australian Catholic University and the University of New South Wales, have shifted to using only two examiners; without a live defense except in extremely rare exceptions. In the case of a master's degree by research the thesis is usually examined by only two examiners. Typically one of these examiners will be from within the candidate's own department; the other(s) will usually be from other universities and often from overseas. Following submission of the thesis, copies are sent by mail to examiners and then reports sent back to the institution.

Similar to a master's degree by research thesis, a thesis for the research component of a master's degree by coursework is also usually examined by two examiners, one from the candidate's department and one from another university. For an Honours year, which is a fourth year in addition to the usual three-year bachelor's degree, the thesis is also examined by two examiners, though both are usually from the candidate's own department. Honours and Master's theses sometimes require an oral defense before they are accepted.

Germany[edit]

In Germany, a thesis is usually examined with an oral examination. This applies to almost all Diplom, Magister, master's and doctoral degrees as well as to most bachelor's degrees. However, a process that allows for revisions of the thesis is usually only implemented for doctoral degrees.

There are several different kinds of oral examinations used in practice. The Disputation, also called Verteidigung ("defense"), is usually public (at least to members of the university) and is focused on the topic of the thesis. In contrast, the Rigorosum is not held in public and also encompasses fields in addition to the topic of the thesis. The Rigorosum is only common for doctoral degrees. Another term for an oral examination is Kolloquium, which generally refers to a usually public scientific discussion and is often used synonymously with Verteidigung.

In each case, what exactly is expected differs between universities and between faculties. Some universities also demand a combination of several of these forms.

Malaysia[edit]

Like the British model, the PHD or MPhil student is required to submit their theses or dissertation for examination by two or three examiners. The first examiner is from the university concerned, the second examiner is from another local university and the third examiner is from a suitable foreign university (usually from Commonwealth countries). The choice of examiners must be approved by the university senate. In some public universities, a PhD or MPhil candidate may also have to show a number publications in peer reviewed academic journals as part of the requirement. An oral viva is conducted after the examiners have submitted their reports to the university. The oral viva session is attended by the Oral Viva chairman, a rapporteur with a PhD qualification, the first examiner, the second examiner and sometimes the third examiner.

Branch campuses of British, Australian and Middle East universities in Malaysia use the respective models of the home campuses to examine their PhD or MPhil candidates.

Philippines[edit]

In the Philippines, a thesis is followed by an oral defense. In most universities, this applies to all bachelor, master, and doctorate degrees. However, the oral defense is held in once per semester (usually in the middle or by the end) with a presentation of revisions (so-called "plenary presentation") at the end of each semester. The oral defense is typically not held in public for bachelor and master oral defenses, however a colloquium is held for doctorate degrees.

Portugal[edit]

In Portugal, a thesis is examined with an oral defense, which includes an initial presentation by the candidate followed by an extensive questioning/answering period. Typical duration for the total exam is 1 hour 30 minutes for the MSc and 3 hours for the PhD.

North America[edit]

In North America, the thesis defense or oral defense is the final examination for doctoral candidates, and sometimes for master's candidates.

The examining committee normally consists of the thesis committee, usually a given number of professors mainly from the student's university plus his or her primary supervisor, an external examiner (someone not otherwise connected to the university), and a chair person. Each committee member will have been given a completed copy of the dissertation prior to the defense, and will come prepared to ask questions about the thesis itself and the subject matter. In many schools, master's thesis defenses are restricted to the examinee and the examiners, but doctoral defenses are open to the public.

The typical format will see the candidate giving a short (20–40-minute) presentation of his or her research, followed by one to two hours of questions.

At some U.S. institutions, a longer public lecture (known as a "thesis talk" or "thesis seminar") by the candidate will accompany the defense itself, in which case only the candidate, the examiners, and other members of the faculty may attend the actual defense.

Russia and Ukraine[edit]

A student in Ukraine or Russia has to complete a thesis and then defend it in front of their department. Sometimes the defense meeting is made up of the learning institute's professionals and sometimes the students peers are allowed to view or join in. After the presentation and defense of the thesis, the final conclusion of the department should be that none of them have reservations on the content and quality of the thesis.

A conclusion on the thesis has to be approved by the rector of the educational institute. This conclusion (final grade so to speak) of the thesis can be defended/argued not only at the thesis council, but also in any other thesis council of Russia or Ukraine.

Spain[edit]

The Diploma de estudios avanzados (DEA) can last two years and candidates must complete coursework and demonstrate their ability to research the specific topics they have studied. After completing this part of the PhD, students begin a dissertation on a set topic. The dissertation must reach a minimum length depending on the subject and it is valued more highly if it contains field research. Once candidates have finished their written dissertations, they must present them before a committee. Following this presentation, the examiners will ask questions.

United Kingdom, Ireland and Hong Kong[edit]

In Hong Kong, Ireland and the United Kingdom, the thesis defense is called a viva voce (Latin for "by live voice") examination (viva for short). A typical viva lasts for approximately 3 hours, though there is no formal time limit. Involved in the viva are two examiners and the candidate. Usually, one examiner is an academic from the candidate's own university department (but not one of the candidate's supervisors) and the other is an external examiner from a different university. Increasingly, the examination may involve a third academic, the 'chair'; this person, from the candidate's institution, acts as an impartial observer with oversight of the examination process to ensure that the examination is fair. The 'chair' does not ask academic questions of the candidate.[14]

In the United Kingdom, there are only two or at most three examiners, and in many universities the examination is held in private. The candidate's primary supervisor is not permitted to ask or answer questions during the viva, and their presence is not necessary. However, some universities permit members of the faculty or the university to attend. At the University of Oxford, for instance, any member of the University may attend a DPhil viva (the University's regulations require that details of the examination and its time and place be published formally in advance) provided he or she attends in full academic dress.[15]

Submission[edit]

A submission of the thesis is the last formal requirement for most students after the defense. By the final deadline, the student must submit a complete copy of the thesis to the appropriate body within the accepting institution, along with the appropriate forms, bearing the signatures of the primary supervisor, the examiners, and, in some cases, the head of the student's department. Other required forms may include library authorizations (giving the university library permission to make the thesis available as part of its collection) and copyright permissions (in the event that the student has incorporated copyrighted materials in the thesis). Many large scientific publishing houses (e.g. Taylor & Francis, Elsevier) use copyright agreements that allow the authors to incorporate their published articles into dissertations without separate authorization.

Failure to submit the thesis by the deadline may result in graduation (and granting of the degree) being delayed. At most U.S. institutions, there will also be various fees (for binding, microfilming, copyright registration, and the like), which must be paid before the degree will be granted.

Once all the paperwork is in order, copies of the thesis may be made available in one or more university libraries. Specialist abstracting services exist to publicize the content of these beyond the institutions in which they are produced. Many institutions now insist on submission of digitized as well as printed copies of theses; the digitized versions of successful theses are often made available online.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^Originally, the concepts "dissertation" and "thesis" (plural, "theses") were not interchangeable. When, at ancient universities, the lector had completed his lecture, there would traditionally follow a disputation, during which students could take up certain points and argue them. The position that one took during a disputation was the thesis, while the dissertation was the line of reasoning with which one buttressed it. Olga Weijers: The medieval disputatio. In: Hora est! (On dissertations), p.23-27. Leiden University Library, 2005
  2. ^ abcInternational Standard ISO 7144: Documentation—Presentation of theses and similar documents, International Organization for Standardization, Geneva, 1986.
  3. ^Douwe Breimer, Jos Damen et al.: Hora est! (On dissertations). Leiden University Library, 2005
  4. ^"The Graduate Thesis". 
  5. ^Thomas, Gary (2009) Your Research Project. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
  6. ^Rudestam & Newton (2007) Surviving your dissertation. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
  7. ^"Italian Studies MA Thesis Work Plan". 
  8. ^http://www.gfme.org/global_guide/pdf/13-18%20Argentina.pdf
  9. ^Comisión Nacional de Evaluación y Acreditación Universitaria (in Spanish)Archived 25 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
  10. ^"Carleton University – Canada's Capital University". Carleton.ca. Retrieved 24 November 2010. 
  11. ^"Our Universities – About Theses Canada – Theses Canada Portal". Collectionscanada.gc.ca. 24 October 2008. Retrieved 24 November 2010. 
  12. ^"MSc Engg and PhD in IISc". Ece.iisc.ernet.in. Retrieved 24 November 2010. 
  13. ^Admin. "How to Write Methodology for Dissertation". researchprospect.com. Research Prospect. Retrieved 16 March 2017. 
  14. ^Pearce, Lynne (2005) How to Examine a Thesis, McGraw-Hill International, pp. 79–85
  15. ^"Oxford University Examination Regulations, 2007". Admin.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved 24 November 2010. 

External links[edit]

Look up thesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Cover page of a Licentiate dissertation in Sweden

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