Charges Indirects Et Direct Essays

Direct and Indirect Discrimination Essay

666 WordsAug 29th, 20123 Pages

Presentation for Direct and Indirect
Discrimination

Direct discrimination can be less favourable treatment, which includes harassment or bullying. Comparably similar legal definitions of indirect discrimination and harassment apply in respect of sexual orientation, religion, age, gender and disability.
Most people understand direct discrimination. Indirect discrimination occurs where the effect of certain requirements, conditions or practices imposed by an employer or education provider has an adverse impact disproportionately on one group or other. Indirect discrimination generally occurs when a rule or condition, which is applied equally to everyone, can be met by a considerably smaller proportion of people from a particular…show more content…

During Ramadan he asks to have his evening meal after sunset. He is told that this is not possible during summer because it would mean having supper too late for the other residents.
This is indirect discrimination if the care home cannot show a good reason (or justification) for their refusal. If the kitchen is closed it may be justifiable to offer him a cold meal which could be served after sunset so that there would be no indirect discrimination

Inclusion. . .is about involving people as much as possible in all decision making activities, as well as promoting independence by encouraging active participation, giving the individual choice, sharing information, trust and acceptance. . .

Example
Recently I cared for a female resident from Germany and although she had lived here for many years, her English was very broken. To help me overcome the language barrier I used; Picture Flash Cards, Flash Cards with German and English phrases on them, non-verbal gestures and an English/German dictionary. By using these different methods of communication I was able to; Encourage and support her to participate in social activities, share information about her well-being and her likes and dislikes with my co-workers and encourage and support her to keep her independence. By doing these simple things and using the right communication methods enabled her to keep her independence and allowed her

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Direct and Indirect Costs

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Direct and Indirect Costs

Direct costs
============

An organisation can apportion the costs incurred in the production of
products or services in either a direct or an indirect manner. The
direct costs can be defined as being the amount materials actually
cost plus any other directly linked costs, such as labour.

(for Quirk, materials, electricity, labour employee and management,
machine depreciation)

Production materials, machine or assembly wages
===============================================

1. Labour and wages – the cost of obtaining, training and retaining
labour is a significantly high cost which must be allocated to each
unit of production. There are many legal obligations as well as social
and welfare considerations, which add to this high costs total.

In order to work out the exact labour and wages costs to be attributed
to each unit of production, an organisation must take a careful study
of the production process and allocate the appropriate expenses. If,
for example, an individual earns £10 per hour and processes 10 units
during that hour, then £1 of direct costs may simply be added to each
unit. Unfortunately, things are not that simple.

There are many other individual costs which an organisation must bear
in the employment of individuals. These may include employer’s
national insurance contributions, pension payments and insurance
policy payments. In most organisations, labour and wage costs account
for the majority of direct costs.

2. Materials – the costs of materials differ according to the sector
in which an organisation operates. As organisation that operates in
the primary sector has comparatively low material costs. At the other
end of the scale, in the tertiary sector, the costs of finished goods
to a retailer for example, will be extremely high. The principal
elements that affect the costs of materials should be included in the
organisation's overall budgetary controls. In addition, an
organisation must also consider the cost of materials in relation to
market demands, as these will inevitably cause periodic fluctuations
in material costs.

Only those materials that are actually used in the production of a
product or service should be considered part of the cost of that
product or service.

Task 2 Page 2

Other consumables used by the organisation are classed as indirect
costs and are considered under separate budgets.

Indirect costs
==================

(for Quirk, rent/rates, sales/ marketing/ insurance/ non-production
depreciation management salaries)

Indirect costs are costs incurred in the running of an organisation
that cannot be easily apportioned to the production process.

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In
effect, they cover all of the support and management services of the
organisation. These indirect costs may be apportioned in percentage
terms to each unit produced. However, the optimum balance between
direct and indirect costs can be somewhat difficult to ascertain. If
an organisation allows its indirect costs to rise in a
disproportionate manner to its direct costs and production levels,
then we can consider the organisation to be rather ‘top heavy’. It
will suffer loss of both profit and working capital.

The main forms of indirect cost are:

Ø Other wages
Ø Depreciation
Ø Management
Ø Administration
Ø Marketing
Ø General running expenses



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