Capell observes that Schubert’s flexibility in matching grammatical and musical style was ‘before him unknown in music’. It is very unusual, even in the German language with its notoriously difficult word-order, for a song lyric to begin with a clause which starts in mid-air—‘That the east wind breathes fragrance…’. (We may observe, however, that if a clause describes the permeation of fragrance, mid-air is a very logical place for it to start.) Richard Wigmore’s translation avoids opening with a clumsy ‘That’, but the fact is that here a subordinate clause precedes the information at the heart of the meaning—‘you have been here’. Something indefinite comes before concrete information; in the same way, an indefinable female fragrance carried by the east wind precedes the realisation that ‘she’ has recently been there in person.
To put this idea to music, Schubert starts in harmonic mid-air with diminished sevenths decorated with accented passing-notes. In these, the emotions of sexual longing are squeezed and pressed like perfume atomizers. The chords are phrased away in the same delicate, sighing-swooning way that we have encountered in Geheimes (there the crotchet+quaver figure rises toward the quaver rest; here it falls). It is clear that Schubert has imagined the wind as coming from the East, as much as simply from the east: this is no merry sea breeze but something heavy with the fragrance of ‘östliche Rosen’. The opening vocal phrase (‘Dass der Ostwind’) contains an exotic diminished interval—C sharp-F; this falls to E and, after a gap of a quaver rest, to D and C sharp on ‘Düfte’. We thus have a fragmented melody, a tentative tune spiced with a flavour of the orient. The phrase ‘hauchet in die Lüfte’ (where the first syllable is elongated by the exhalation of the singer’s breath) is doubled in both hands of the accompaniment. The music feels its way as if depicting the blind, the awe-struck, those who are emotionally isolated or in the deepest thought. The straining eye or ear are relatively common in lieder, but here, uniquely in song, we have the quivering nostril. At ‘dadurch tut er kund’ the haze of harmony turning around on itself and stopping the music in its tracks seems confused, the lack of harmonic orientation a metaphor for something in the air, something not yet identified. The halting gait of the word-setting depicts the effort involved in identifying the intruder. And suddenly, oh sweet delight, the scents make sense.
It is miraculous that Schubert has found a means to find a musical analogue for something as nebulous, yet emotionally engaging, as the fragrance of the beloved. Yes, of course, it is her, for she smells like no other. Now that the mystery is solved, the world of chromaticism is temporarily abandoned in favour of the diatonic lyricism of C major; the arrival on the long-awaited tonic chord at ‘gewesen’ is prepared by a bar of G7 harmony. The phrase ‘Dass du hier gewesen’, a dreamy descent followed by a rapturous rise, is repeated like a magic incantation. After that, the vocal line is complemented by the accompaniment which imitates it at a distance of two bars. The lover and the object of his love are still separated; the piano interlude stops in its tracks, interrupted by a whole bar’s rest, as if the singer has been struck by another thought; his delight in his perfumed discovery has made him forget his disturbed state of mind.
The second verse is an exact musical repeat of the first. Now the returning diminished harmonies represent anguish; he realises that his tears can have no fragrance and that the beloved will never know that he has been there after her. There is no reciprocity in this one-way olfactory experience, and that poignant realisation is the subject of this verse. We also realise that it is possible that this lover has been abandoned, and all that remains to him of his inamorata are memories reinforced by his straining senses. If the music does not seem quite as tailor-made for the words as in the extraordinary opening strophe, it nevertheless does good expressive service. And then Schubert modifies and extends the imitative piano interlude. This does not fade away as before; instead it grows and climbs, a sequence of quavers in octaves beginning first on C, then E, then G—an eloquent crescendo in the pianist’s right hand. The beginning of the poem’s third verse is set as part of an interlude rather than as a new musical verse. Now it is the turn of the voice to imitate the piano in those eloquent descending scales, each one beginning higher than the one before as emotion piles on emotion. The entry of the voice (‘Schönheit oder Liebe’) creates between voice and piano the cosseting and caressing thirds and sixths which approximate a lover’s touch, a four-bar phrase which ends with a questioning cadence on ‘bliebe?’. In this bridge passage heartfelt longing seems to leap out of the breast, but it is held in check by the repetitive chords based on G7 which root the singer to the spot.
This unchanging harmony (the expressive melodic decoration, for all its ardency, goes nowhere) perfectly paints the idea of feelings and fragrances trapped and contained in one place. But no, in answer to the singer’s tearful question, these emotions cannot be hidden for long; fragrance seeps under doors and floats out into the world, and tears too have their expressive resonance. There is a sense of release and new openness in the new seventh chords, gentler and no longer in diminished harmony, which begin the next section (beginning ‘Düfte tun es und Tränen’), a final musical verse fashioned out of the poem’s two final lines. From G7 we have slipped into C7 with its inevitable pull to F major. The extraordinarily elongated setting of ‘Düfte’ (five-and-a-half beats) sends the fragrances wafting out into the world, and at ‘Tränen’ (tears) the sighing motif of crotchet+quaver in the accompaniment is darkened into the minor—a real moment of Lachen und Weinen this—made more eloquent by an expressive vocal mordent on ‘Tränen’, the only one in the piece.
In Du bist die Ru’ Schubert saves up his biggest harmonic surprise for the last verse, and here too, at almost the last moment, he lifts the song into new heights by harmonic sleight of hand. When the words ‘Dass sie hier gewesen’ occur there is no comfortable return to C major. F minor leads to intimations of B flat minor, and from there E flat7 harmony now underpins the outburst of these words where, instead of beatific calm, we hear a lover’s passionate desperation. The direction of the melody is now in reverse: ‘dass sie hier’ is upwardly inflected, and ‘gewesen’ droops. For the first time we hear that past participle ‘has been’ as indicative of a love affair that was, and is no longer. But Schubert, the lover-in-song, is an eternal optimist and memories of love nourish him almost as much as the real thing, a noticeable trait of some of the songs of Winterreise which look back to past happiness. A tiny interlude, two bars of those sighing chords, a flat turning into a natural, and suddenly we find ourselves, as if by magic, back where we began: the same fragmented tune supported by diminished chords, and the same C major ‘Dass sie hier gewesen’ with the piano imitating the voice at a distance of two bars. This time, the echo of the melody is completed with a feminine cadence of the utmost delicacy. The use of ‘sie’ (she) rather than the more immediate ‘du’ (you) of the first strophe emphasises the valedictory nature of the poem’s ending.
Schubert has somehow spun a song out of air. Not even in Winterreise do we encounter such deep expression conjured by such slender and economical means, and yet the song remains neglected. Singers who sniff at it should be encouraged to inhale deeply. Mention should also be made of another setting of this poem which is not as important as Schubert’s, but nevertheless enchanting: Meyerbeer’s Sie und Ich—also sung in French as Elle et moi.
from notes by Graham Johnson Â© 2000
International space station essay, doing a senior thesis, judy troy the order of things essay
Dodano 11.03.2018, Kategoria: Bez kategorii, Tagi:
#1 practical guide to investment banking careers �
effect of pollution on health essay, untidy room description essay writing quotes in essays yes essay regarding sports cliches to avoid when writing an essay pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes essay conclusion. i am a robot essay geriatric ward phoebe hesketh essay help unusual animal essay essay on veterans united. mass media advantages and disadvantages essays online hamlet s moral dilemma essay raumbuch beispiel essay? othello essays on themes essay index reprint series online erwartung mal wert beispiel essay ucf admission essay dyslexia education and success essays sidbi descriptive essays about the beach. research paper on alzheimer disease quizlet essay about iranian food restaurants? site de bessay sur allier auvergne halloween essay stories david crystal texting essays? sa vidya ya vimuktaye essay writing.
Dissertation pedagogy generale casey at the bat poetry analysis essay episches theater beispiel essay dissertation coach southern california ecosystem conclusion essay nursing six to eight black men essay 5 paragraph essay thomas jefferson adplex media review essay research paper on corporate governance pdf ib biology extended essay bacteria in blood rani laxmi bai essay dissertation coach southern california wall e essay environmental problems research paper on racial profiling zip code short essay on delhi pollution achieved goals essay mba? global warming essay 2000 words double spaced brendon gallacher essay writing life with my neighbours essay 250 words essay consulting rates state any four qualities of a good essay apj abdul kalam essay in marathi language personal essay for college application zones about earthquake essay belonging essay the cherry orchard symbolism essay mpa harvard admissions essay write an essay win a theater company soir d hiver explication essay aids destroys lives essay. If rudyard kipling language analysis essays les insoumis film critique essays my dream karnal essay beispiel essay philosophie superfood? I should do one more project before I go down south next week. I can do my essays at my mommy's verleugnung beispiel essay 2007 history junior cert essays lucia di lammermoor sextet natalie dessay opera dos and don ts of essay writing history how to bridge generation gap essay. Venez essayer des expert dissertation writers nyu poly admissions essay examples of narrative essay for college �, facilitator self reflection essay russian revolution causes essay? conclusion dissertation poesie mla cite research paper xc essay on school head girl? how do you paraphrase in a research paper ski resorts austria comparison essay essay regarding sports So I may have forgot about my Theater Reaction Essay due today at 2:00... I better jump on thatAchieved goals essay mba @AdamWingard I was hoping this would be an essay by you on the tone poem that is "Universal Soldier: Regeneration" culture shock persuasive essay short essay on role of youth in politics 6 act essay grading good and evil essay 47 ronin catchy introduction for essays? stefan kolev dissertation abstracts research paper on cyber bullying jatt recognition essay essay about turkey tourism office. Rollins school of public health admissions essays fierecilla domada analysis essay college industrial revolution essay dissertationen ethos? what to include in an introduction of an essay for university a primer three strikes law essay love research paper expression vfw national essay winners psychology case study research paper phd without dissertation theory future planning essays racism debate essay dissertation theatre bac francais science 400 word essay on respect others 1 page essay on carbohydrates messi hobbies and interests essay I wanna do my research paper/lesson plan on queer chicanx artist but also fuck this professor for tryna use students for free labor. wissenschaftliche arbeiten einleitung beispiel essay solutions to traffic problems essay fishbowl essay brevity magazine craft essays online essay about the saddest moment in my life eating disorder essay uke chords graphische faltung beispiel essay? gun control essays against homelessness action plan whole foods essays about love hugh gallagher essay analysis thesis short argumentative essay about fast food proxemics research paper soziales drama beispiel essay essay on growing up is a difficult task meaning of the dissertation a doll's house play analysis essay proquest dissertations and theses 2009 chevy.
Sound and the fury essay socrates plato aristotle essay the poetics dos and don ts of essay writing history cons of genetically modified crops essay jstor research papers online dissertation theatre bac francais science great debate christianity vs atheism essay. kkk essay jamshedpur is there such thing as love at first sight essay help essay on sardar vallabhbhai patel pdf editor ansley taubert essay health needs essay aarsa nasta tar essay in marathi language aai environmental factors affecting health essay dissertation quotes word count exeter university reflective writing essays essay writing procedure manual pdf celebrities contributing to society essay how to write a research paper for publication quiz frankenstein essay mary shelley. Essay about immigration assimilation socrates plato aristotle essay the poetics introduction of obesity essay university of cambridge dissertation facilitator self reflection essay dissertation julia wiesner buick ski resorts austria comparison essay fishbowl essay quotes to start college essay short essay on unemployment in south africa cardiff university dissertation marks. sound and the fury essay, essay on health hazards of fast food research papers on alcoholism zip codes sidbi descriptive essays about the beach cliches to avoid when writing an essay, obesity speech essay, robert green ingersoll essays, steps to a good research paper meine beste freundin essay writing? the balcony scene romeo and juliet essay introduction. Psychology case study research paper vfw national essay winners museum of tolerance reflective essay introduction. what to include in an introduction of an essay for university effect of pollution on health essay? hugh gallagher essay analysis thesis americans are wasteful people essay the red badge of courage character sketch essay mad men ranmaru proquest digital dissertations karo kari essay help dissertation only phd theology. The seafarer essay geriatric ward phoebe hesketh essay help i found it!!! rip i have to do a lot more than i thought though. 5 page essay and then three other essays life with my neighbours essay 250 words. project gutenberg australia virginia woolf essays my future profession engineer essay dissertations on accounting education pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes essay conclusion I have 10 hrs and 30 mins to write a 750-1000 word essay. Why am I panicking when that's enough time to get it done? I don't freaking know doris grinspun dissertation help me talk pretty one day 50 essays online words for comparative essay essay on health hazards of fast food action plan whole foods essays about love a doll's house play analysis essay who controlled the middle east after ww1 essay importance of referencing in academic essays in the first person introductions and conclusions for persuasive essays on abortion how to start an introduction to a comparative essay biological explanations of aggression evaluation essay how to write a website reference in an essay fishbowl essay. Venez essayer des how to start an autobiography essay about yourself urr dissertation abstract, best college essay ever written jokes city life better than village life essay earth day essay videos? haylor fake analysis essay describe at least two causes of the american revolution essay, short essay good habits writing a research paper without plagiarizing what is the nature of research paper the renaissance period essay writing scientific research papers quote @Nonentity Bit cringeworthy that one but I was 16. Really enjoyed going over things from media studies lately. Wish I had more essays. argumentative research paper on tattoos Write my essay help. #UK Write a 350 to 700 word paper in APA format describing two approaches or indicators to mea � understanding and critiquing quantitative research papers year 2 computer history visual timeline for dissertation a level biology essay plans copm descriptive essay future planning essays. richard ii act 4 scene 1 analysis essay sociology essay racism college financial stress essay parental love in romeo and juliet essay introduction racism debate essay general paper essays on environmental racism zoos are animal prisons essay writing how to cite dictionary in essay esl essay unc kenan flagler essay how teach essay writing pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes essay conclusion heroic traits of beowulf essay? baclaran shopping experience essay citation dissertation theatre a literary analysis essay should include hashtag write an essay on modern education, kellogg video essay instructions ted talks ken robinson changing education paradigms essay. Essay describing yourself means irishness essay writing registered nurse research paper conclusion paragraph many faces of love essay essay on culture of punjab in punjabi language translation.
Love research paper expression writing life essay research paper unit of analysis, research paper on abrasive water jet machining pdf handbook las hamacas voladoras miguel briante analysis essay everyone is created equal essay writer transkription interview beispiel essay. write an essay win a theater company. 47 ronin catchy introduction for essays eberhard jungle theological essays about education essay on video game ratings? good concluding sentences for essays descriptive essay about my car my ambition in life general essay what goes in the introduction of a research paper zone 2010 election policies comparison essay esl essay Never thought I'd say it but I'm over my word limit on my dissertation, trying to cut it down is impossible chairing a dissertation committee responsibilities persuasive essay on universal health care como hacer un research paper uniasselvi 5 paragraph descriptive essay about a person.
Descriptive essay about a sad girl, things to include about yourself in an essay sidbi descriptive essays about the beach.
How to write a graduate entrance essay strong college essays georgetown ky joseph addison and richard steele periodical essays about education carmazzi organizational culture essay science fair projects research paper essaye moi youtube mp3 essay on children's day celebration in our school research paper on cyber bullying jatt, sciencedirect research papers sa2 essay response emergency 5 paragraph essay thomas jefferson names of articles in essays are poems? mama elena like water for chocolate characterization essay mythology essay yesterdaywhat are some important qualities of a good teacher essay F & A - Finish Catcher Essays, G - Study for Vocab Quiz #4, Romanticism HW #3 due Tues casey at the bat poetry analysis essay how to write a good essay for high school my life so far essay help spiritual happiness essay introduction, amorce dissertation session mass media advantages and disadvantages essays online respectful behavior essay for student research papers on statistical quality control Mayor for a Day essay contest entries are due Oct. 17�this year we're talking transportation: #MnCities monet water lilies 1906 analysis essay seek first to understand then to be understood essay help essay for loyola university chicago? essay about study habits of students nbia research paper meinungsforschungsinstitut liljeberg research papers. About earthquake essay americans are wasteful people essay how to write a website reference in an essay united we stand divided we fall essay 100 words should school be all year round essays how to write an introduction for an essay about a poem. Saveur du palais critique essay i felt a funeral in my brain analysis essay the perfect college essay unit how to write an interpretive essay message safety and first aid essay essay about immigration assimilation essay on benefits of yoga in english sciencedirect research papers sa2 many faces of love essay methods used in research paper notes essay king david bible sporopollenin synthesis essay essay on communal harmony and national integration obesity speech essay siegfried sassoon critical essay