Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Because it is UNCORRECTED material, please consider the following text as a useful but insufficient proxy for the authoritative book pages.
Conclusion This document explains that there are well-understood physical mechanisms by which changes in the amounts of greenhouse gases cause climate changes. It discusses the evidence that the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere have increased and are still increasing rapidly, that climate change is occurring, and that most of the recent change is almost certainly due to emissions of greenhouse gases caused by human activities. Further climate change is inevitable; if emissions of greenhouse gases continue unabated, future changes will substantially exceed those that have occurred so far. There remains a range of estimates of the magnitude and regional expression of future change, but increases in the extremes of climate that can adversely affect natural ecosystems and human activities and infrastructure are expected. Citizens and governments can choose among several options (or a mixture of those options) in response to this information: they can change their pattern of energy production and usage in order to limit emissions of greenhouse gases and hence the magnitude of climate changes; they can wait for changes to occur and accept the losses, damage and suffering that arise; they can adapt to actual and expected changes as much as possible; or they can seek as yet unproven âgeoengineeringâ solutions to counteract some of the climate changes that would otherwise occur. Each of these options has risks, attractions and costs, and what is actually done may be a mixture of these different options. Different nations and communities will vary in their vulnerability and their capacity to adapt. There is an important debate to be had about choices among these options, to decide what is best for each group or nation, and most importantly for the global population as a whole. The options have to be discussed at a global scale, because in many cases those communities that are most vulnerable control few of the emissions, either past or future. Our description of the science of climate change, with both its facts and its uncertainties, is offered as a basis to inform that policy debate. E v i de n c e & C a u se s B9
Climate change is basically a change in weather that has a global effect that can last for decades, centuries or in some cases even longer. Climate change is something that is heard all the time in today’s news along with the term Global Warming. Experts believe that global warming is created through pollution however not all climate changes are caused by mankind.
WHAT CAUSES CLIMATE CHANGE?
The most common cause of climate changes in the past has been the light of the sun being blocked causing an age of ice as the planet freezes over. The years known as The Ice Age is one example of what happens when the sun is unable to penetrate the atmosphere and warm up the Earth. Phenomenon that is able to create such an effect include:
- The eruption of a super volcano such as Yellowstone
- A big asteroid crashing into earth, creating enough dust to fill the atmosphere
- Nuclear weapons capable of creating enough debris to fill the atmosphere
Not all climate changes bring the cooling effect of the planet. One thing that is believed to be a cause of a climate change happening now is Global warming.
WHAT IS GLOBAL WARNING?
Global warming is where the Earth is seen to warm up instead of cool down. It is believed that pollution created by modern living is a direct form of the global warming that is happening today. Another belief is that solar radiation that is caused by solar storms from the sun is a direct cause of global warming.
In either case, global warming is created through a whole emerging in the atmosphere. The atmosphere around the earth protects us from harmful radiation rays that emerge from the sun. When a hole is created, radiation and heat is let in causing the Earth’s temperature to rise.
WHAT ARE THE SIGNS OF GLOBAL WARMING?
There are many signs that the Earth is warming up that scientists observe every day. Some of these signs include:
- Changing of weather patterns
- Melting of Icebergs
- Seas rising
Scientists warn that the signs of global warming are on the increase every year signalling the next great climate change.
Scientists all agree that global warming is happening. However they disagree on what is causing it. Some believe that global warming is a natural occurrence while others believe it is a man-made issue caused by pollution. It is possible that global warming is caused by a mixture of the two.
Damage has already been caused to the atmosphere and this is irreversible but if this hole is caused by pollution then we can all help to reduce further damage by cutting down on the pollution we cause.