Oxford Style Guide Bibliography Mla

Our citation generator is great for automatically compiling your bibliographies, but it's still important you know the process of creating a bibliography manually, and the reasons why citing your sources is necessary.

For these reasons we have prepared the following set of guides to assist you:

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  • Acta Materialia style
  • American Chemical Society (author-date) style
  • American Journal of Plant Sciences style
  • Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica style
  • American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics style
  • American Journal of Agricultural Economics style
  • American Journal of Botany style
  • American Journal of Human Genetics style
  • ACS Nano style
  • Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica style
  • Administrative Science Quarterly style
  • ACM SIGCHI Proceedings style
  • ACM SIGCHI Proceedings - Extended Abstract Format style
  • Acta Naturae style
  • Acta Palaeontologica Polonica style
  • Advanced Functional Materials style
  • American Chemical Society (with titles, sentence case) style
  • Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien style
  • Academy of Management Review style
  • Aging Cell style
  • Annals of Neurology style
  • Anticancer Research style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Avian Pathology style
  • Biochemistry style
  • American Veterinary Medical Association style
  • Annual Reviews (sorted by order of appearance) style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (curriculum vitae, sorted by descending date) style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (French/Français) style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (Italian/Italiano) style
  • Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation style
  • Australian Journal of Earth Sciences style
  • Centaurus style
  • Chicago style
  • Brain style
  • Canadian Public Policy style
  • Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (library list) style
  • Chinese Std GB/T 7714-1987 (numeric, Chinese) style
  • Clinical Nuclear Medicine style
  • CNS & Neurological Disorders - Drug Targets style
  • Current Proteomics style
  • ACM SIGGRAPH style
  • ACM SIG Proceedings ("et al." for 15+ authors) style
  • Acta Universitatis Agriculturae Sueciae (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences) (Swedish) style
  • Allergy style
  • American Institute of Physics style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (Université de Montréal) (French - Canada) style
  • Australian Historical Studies style
  • Biochemical Society Transactions style
  • Biological Psychiatry style
  • BioMed Central style
  • Clinical Microbiology and Infection style
  • Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research style
  • Council of Science Editors, Citation-Name (numeric, sorted alphabetically) style
  • Decision Sciences style
  • DIN 1505-2 (numeric, German) style
  • DIN 1505-2 (numeric, sorted alphabetically, German) style
  • ACM SIG Proceedings ("et al." for 3+ authors) style
  • Advances in Alzheimer's Disease style
  • American Geophysical Union style
  • American Journal of Medical Genetics style
  • American Medical Association (sorted alphabetically) style
  • American Medical Association (no URL) style
  • American Meteorological Society style
  • American Society of Civil Engineers style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (no DOIs, no issue numbers) style
  • Arachnology style
  • American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America style
  • BibTeX generic citation style style
  • Biological Journal of the Linnean Society style
  • Biological Reviews style
  • Bluebook Law Review style
  • Brazilian Journal of Botany style
  • Cell Transplantation style
  • Critical Care Medicine style
  • Deutsche Gesellschaft für Psychologie (German) style
  • Die Bachelorarbeit (Samac et al.) (note, German) style
  • Drug Testing and Analysis style
  • Early Medieval Europe style
  • Acta Ophthalmologica style
  • Ameghiniana style
  • American Political Science Association style
  • American Society of Mechanical Engineers style
  • Angewandte Chemie International Edition style
  • Annals of the Association of American Geographers style
  • Aquatic Living Resources style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - Universidade Federal do Paraná (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Association for Computational Linguistics - Conference Proceedings style
  • Biochimica et Biophysica Acta style
  • Biotropica style
  • British Journal of Political Science style
  • British Journal of Surgery style
  • BYZANTINA SYMMEIKTA style
  • Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press style
  • De Buck (Dutch) style
  • Ecology Letters style
  • American Chemical Society (page-first) style
  • American Chemical Society (with titles, no "et al.") style
  • American Journal of Surgical Pathology style
  • American Medical Association style
  • American Physiological Society style
  • Annales. Histoire, Sciences sociales (French) style
  • Annals of Oncology style
  • Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics style
  • Annual Review of Nuclear and Particle Science style
  • Applied Spectroscopy style
  • Arachne style
  • Archéologie médiévale (French) style
  • Asia & the Pacific Policy Studies style
  • Chemical Senses style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (figures and illustrations) style
  • Clay Minerals style
  • Collection du Centre Jean-Bérard (French) style
  • Cuadernos de Filología Clásica. Estudios Griegos e Indoeuropeos (autor-año, Spanish) style
  • Current Opinion journals style
  • Épidémiologie et Santé Animale style
  • American Mineralogist style
  • Annals of Botany style
  • Antiquity style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (Turkish) style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (note, Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • ANPET - Congresso de Pesquisa e Ensino em Transportes (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Ausonius Éditions (French) style
  • Austrian Legal (German - Austria) style
  • Bioinformatics style
  • Biotechnology and Bioengineering style
  • Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (author-date, German) style
  • Clinical Infectious Diseases style
  • Conservation Letters style
  • Conservation Physiology style
  • Copernicus Publications style
  • Elsevier Vancouver style
  • European Union Interinstitutional Style Guide style
  • Fertility and Sterility style
  • Acta Societatis Botanicorum Poloniae style
  • American Anthropological Association style
  • American Journal of Archaeology style
  • American Journal of Neuroradiology style
  • American Sociological Association style
  • Cellular Reprogramming style
  • Coral Reefs style
  • Corrosion style
  • Ecosystems style
  • Elsevier (numeric, with titles, sorted alphabetically) style
  • Equine Veterinary Education style
  • Equine Veterinary Journal style
  • Federation of European Microbiological Societies style
  • Fish and Fisheries style
  • Free Radical Research style
  • Geistes- und Kulturwissenschaften (Heilmann) (German) style
  • Genèses: Sciences sociales et histoire (French) style
  • Global Ecology and Biogeography style
  • Harvard - Anglia Ruskin University style
  • Harvard - Cardiff University style
  • Harvard - Durham University Business School style
  • Acta Neurochirurgica style
  • Advances in Complex Systems style
  • American Chemical Society (with titles) style
  • American Heart Association style
  • American Journal of Epidemiology style
  • American Medical Association (no "et al.") style
  • American Phytopathological Society (numeric) style
  • Annual Reviews (sorted alphabetically) style
  • Annual Reviews (sorted by order of appearance, without titles) style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition style
  • Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems style
  • Austral Ecology style
  • Biometrics style
  • Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (full note, no Ibid.) style
  • Culture, Medicine, and Psychiatry style
  • DIN 1505-2 (author-date, German) style
  • Diplo style
  • Écoscience style
  • Environmental Chemistry style
  • European Society of Cardiology style
  • Evolution style
  • Flavour and Fragrance Journal style
  • Free Radical Biology & Medicine style
  • Frontiers medical journals style
  • Harvard - King's College London style
  • Harvard - University of Birmingham style
  • France (auteurs et al., numérotation, French) style
  • Geografie Sborník ČGS (Czech) style
  • Harvard - Oxford Brookes University - Faculty of Health and Life Sciences style
  • Harvard - Swinburne University of Technology style
  • Harvard - The University of Northampton style
  • Heredity style
  • Human Reproduction style
  • IEEE (with URL) style
  • Infoclio (sans majuscules, French) style
  • Forensic Science Review style
  • Freshwater Science style
  • Gastroenterology style
  • Genome Biology and Evolution style
  • Russian GOST R 7.0.5-2008 (Russian) style
  • Coventry University - Harvard style
  • Harvard - University of Limerick style
  • Harvard - The University of Melbourne style
  • Harvard - University of Wolverhampton style
  • Heart Rhythm style
  • INTER: Romanian Review for Theological and Religious Studies style
  • Journal Français d'Ophtalmologie style
  • Journal of Applied Animal Science style
  • Harvard - Institut für Praxisforschung (Bahr & Frackmann) (German) style
  • Harvard - Leeds Metropolitan University style
  • Harvard - University of Cape Town style
  • Harvard - University of Kent style
  • Harvard - University of Leeds style
  • ISO-690 (author-date, Czech) style
  • Israel Medical Association Journal style
  • Jahrbuch für evangelikale Theologie (German) style
  • Journal for the History of Astronomy style
  • Journal of Bone and Mineral Research style
  • Journal of Fish Diseases style
  • DNA Research style
  • Earth Surface Processes and Landforms style
  • Ecology style
  • Environment and Planning style
  • European Cells & Materials style
  • European Journal of Ophthalmology style
  • Freie Universität Berlin - Geographische Wissenschaften (German) style
  • Harvard - Cape Peninsula University of Technology style
  • Harvard (German/Deutsch) style
  • Health Services Research style
  • History and Theory style
  • Hydrobiologia style
  • International Journal of Cancer style
  • International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environmental Health style
  • International Journal of Wildland Fire style
  • ISO-690 (author-date, French) style
  • ISO-690 (note, no abstract, French) style
  • Journalistica (Danish) style
  • Journal of Atrial Fibrillation style
  • Journal of Avian Biology style
  • Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia style
  • Journal of Common Market Studies style
  • Journal of Computational Chemistry style
  • Journal of Hypertension style
  • Journal of Integrated OMICS style
  • Journal of Neuroscience and Neuroengineering style
  • Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science style
  • Emu - Austral Ornithology style
  • Entomological Society of America style
  • European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases style
  • European Journal of Information Systems style
  • Evolutionary Anthropology style
  • Frontiers in Optics style
  • Gallia (French) style
  • Genes to Cells style
  • Global Change Biology style
  • Harvard - Staffordshire University style
  • Histoire & Mesure (French) style
  • Human Brain Mapping style
  • Infoclio (German - Switzerland) style
  • Information Systems Research style
  • Institute of Physics (numeric) style
  • International Microbiology style
  • Invertebrate Systematics style
  • ISO-690 (note, without bibliography, Czech) style
  • ISO-690 (numeric, brackets, Czech) style
  • Journal of Applied Philosophy style
  • Journal of Elections, Public Opinion & Parties style
  • Journal of Hearing Science style
  • Journal of Morphology style
  • Journal of Petrology style
  • Journal of Simulation style
  • Human Resource Management Journal style
  • Immunological Reviews style
  • Infoclio (petites majuscules, French) style
  • International Conference on Information Systems Development style
  • Journal of Archaeological Research style
  • Journal of Pollination Ecology style
  • Journal of Visualized Experiments style
  • Karger journals (author-date) style
  • KTH Royal Institute of Technology - School of Computer Science and Communication (Swedish) style
  • LexisNexis Québec (Guide Lluelles modifié, French - Canada) style
  • Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise style
  • Métropolitiques (French) style
  • Moore Theological College style
  • New Zealand Veterinary Journal style
  • Journal of Chemical Ecology style
  • Journal of Combinatorics style
  • Journal of Veterinary Cardiology style
  • Landes Bioscience Journals style
  • Latin American Perspectives style
  • Law & Society Review style
  • Liver International style
  • Metallurgical and Materials Transactions style
  • Methods in Ecology and Evolution style
  • National Science Foundation (grant proposals) style
  • Neurology India style
  • New Hart's Rules: The Oxford Style Guide style
  • Oral Diseases style
  • Oxford Centre for Mission Studies (Harvard) style
  • Oxford Studies on the Roman Economy style
  • Parasitology style
  • Protein Science style
  • Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences style
  • Reviews of Modern Physics (with titles) style
  • Revista Virtual de Química (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Disability and Rehabilitation style
  • Drugs of Today style
  • Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean style
  • El profesional de la información (Spanish) style
  • Environmental Health Perspectives style
  • European Respiratory Journal style
  • Sascha Foerster - Geisteswissenschaft (German) style
  • Frontiers journals style
  • Frontiers in Physics style
  • Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta style
  • Harvard Reference format 7 (author-date, German) style
  • Bournemouth University - Harvard style
  • Harvard - University of Abertay Dundee style
  • Harvard - University of Hull style
  • Harvard - York University style
  • Health Economics, Policy and Law style
  • Human Reproduction Update style
  • Institute of Physics (Harvard) style
  • International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry style
  • International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics style
  • ISO-690 (numeric, English) style
  • ISO-690 (numeric, Slovak) style
  • Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A style
  • Journal of Finance style
  • Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery style
  • Journal of Roman Archaeology (B) style
  • Journal of Social Archaeology style
  • Karger journals style
  • Kritische Ausgabe (German) style
  • Leidraad voor juridische auteurs (Dutch) style
  • Le tapuscrit (École des hautes études en sciences sociales) (author-date, French) style
  • Lettres et Sciences Humaines (biblio et notes, French) style
  • Melbourne School of Theology style
  • Mycologia style
  • Oryx style
  • Pontifical Athenaeum Regina Apostolorum style
  • Revue d'histoire moderne et contemporaine (French) style
  • Risk Analysis style
  • ROSE School style
  • RTF Scan style
  • Science (without titles) style
  • Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics style
  • Clio Medica style
  • Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift (German) style
  • Environmental & Engineering Geoscience style
  • Environmental Microbiology style
  • Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry style
  • Future Science Group style
  • Geoarchaeology style
  • Grasas y Aceites style
  • Harvard - Bath University style
  • Harvard - Newcastle University style
  • Harvard - The University of Sheffield - School of East Asian Studies style
  • Harvard - The University of Sheffield - Town and Regional Planning style
  • Harvard - University of Technology, Sydney style
  • History of the Human Sciences style
  • International Labour Organization style
  • Journal of Applied Ecology style
  • Journal of European Public Policy style
  • Journal of Field Ornithology style
  • Journal of Food Protection style
  • Journal of Molecular Endocrinology style
  • Journal of Neurophysiology style
  • Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology style
  • Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology style
  • Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy style
  • Mammal Review style
  • Modern Language Association 7th edition (underline) style
  • Nano Biomedicine and Engineering style
  • Norma Portuguesa 405 (Portuguese) style
  • Ornitología Neotropical style
  • Past & Present style
  • Perspectives on Politics style
  • Proceedings of the Royal Society B style
  • Revista Ciencias Técnicas Agropecuarias (Spanish) style
  • ISO-690 (numeric, parentheses, Czech) style
  • The Journal of Biological Chemistry style
  • Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine style
  • Journal of Rheumatology style
  • Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons style
  • Journal of the American College of Cardiology style
  • Journal of the Association for Information Systems style
  • Journal of Zoology style
  • Lethaia style
  • Canadian Guide to Uniform Legal Citation 7th edition (McGill Guide) style
  • Medical History style
  • Methods of Information in Medicine style
  • Modern Humanities Research Association 3rd edition (author-date) style
  • Modern Language Association 7th edition (with URL) style
  • Molecular Psychiatry (letters to the editor) style
  • Multiple Sclerosis Journal style
  • NeuroReport style
  • Organization Science style
  • PAIN style
  • Palaeontology style
  • Pediatric Allergy and Immunology style
  • Periodontology 2000 style
  • Plant Pathology style
  • ProInflow (note, Czech) style
  • Public Health Nutrition style
  • Radiology style
  • Reproduction style
  • Royal Society of Chemistry style
  • Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases style
  • Journal of Internal Medicine style
  • Journal of Management Information Systems style
  • Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma style
  • Journal of Paleontology style
  • Journal of Roman Archaeology (A) style
  • Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery style
  • Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute style
  • Language in Society style
  • Les Journées de la Recherche Porcine (French) style
  • Limnology and Oceanography style
  • London South Bank University (numeric) style
  • Manuel canadien de la référence juridique 7e édition (Guide McGill, French - Canada) style
  • Microscopy and Microanalysis style
  • Middle East Critique style
  • National Archives of Australia style
  • Neuropsychopharmacology style
  • OSCOLA (Oxford University Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities) style
  • Paleobiology style
  • Political Studies style
  • Pontifical Biblical Institute style
  • Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry style
  • Revue des Nouvelles Technologies de l'Information (French) style
  • Romanian Humanities (Romanian) style
  • Arthritis & Rheumatism style
  • Arzneimitteltherapie style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - Instituto de Pesquisa Econômica Aplicada (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas - Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais - FACE (Autoria abreviada. Exemplo: MENDES, J.) (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Australian Veterinary Journal style
  • Boreal Environment Research style
  • Bulletin of Marine Science style
  • Chicago Manual of Style 16th edition (author-date, Basque) style
  • Chroniques des activités archéologiques de l'Ecole française de Rome (French) style
  • Database style
  • Diatom Research style
  • EMBO reports style
  • Engineering in Life Sciences style
  • Evolutionary Ecology Research style
  • Fachhochschule Kiel - Fachbereich Medien (German) style
  • Forest Science style
  • Geology style
  • Hypotheses in the Life Sciences style
  • ICES Journal of Marine Science style
  • Indian Journal of Medical Research style
  • Institut national de la recherche scientifique - Sciences sociales (author-date, French) style
  • Interdisziplinäre Zeitschrift für Technologie und Lernen (German) style
  • International Journal of Climatology style
  • International Journal of Exercise Science style
  • International Organization style
  • Investigative Radiology style
  • Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery style
  • Journal of Evolutionary Biology style
  • Journal of Forensic Sciences style
  • Journal of Infectious Diseases style
  • Journal of Nutrition style
  • Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience style
  • Journal of Spinal Disorders & Techniques style
  • Journal of the American Ceramic Society style
  • Journal of Tropical Ecology style
  • Journal of Vegetation Science style
  • Kindheit und Entwicklung style
  • médecine/sciences style
  • OSCOLA (Oxford University Standard for Citation of Legal Authorities) (no Ibid. and "(n__)") style
  • Oxford University Press HUMSOC style
  • Philosophiques (French) style
  • Radiopaedia.org style
  • SAGE Vancouver style
  • Scandinavian Political Studies style
  • Society for American Archaeology style
  • Socio-Economic Review style
  • Sozialpädagogisches Institut Berlin - Walter May (German) style
  • Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening style
  • Anesthesia and Analgesia style
  • Annual Reviews (author-date) style
  • Archaeometry style
  • Archiv für Geschichte der Philosophie style
  • ASAIO Journal (American Society for Artificial Internal Organs) style
  • Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine style
  • BioMed Research International style
  • Campus adventiste du Salève - Faculté adventiste de théologie (French) style
  • Cerebral Cortex style
  • Comisión Económica para América Latina y el Caribe (Spanish) style
  • Council of Science Editors, Citation-Sequence (numeric) style
  • Endocrine Press style
  • Environmental Conservation style
  • ergoscience style
  • European Journal of Soil Science style
  • Evolution & Development style
  • Fachhochschule Vorarlberg (German) style
  • France (tous les auteurs, numérotation, French) style
  • Freshwater Biology style
  • Georg-August-Universität Göttingen - Institut für Ethnologie und Ethnologische Sammlung (German) style
  • Hamburg School of Food Science (diploma, German) style
  • Harvard - Manchester Business School style
  • Hydrological Sciences Journal style
  • Ingeniería Agrícola (Spanish) style
  • International Journal of Lexicography style
  • International Pig Veterinary Society Congress Proceedings style
  • Journal of Adolescent Health style
  • Journal of Animal Science style
  • Journal of Industrial Ecology style
  • Journal of Mammalogy style
  • Journal of the American College of Surgeons style
  • Manchester University Press monographs style
  • McDonald Institute Monographs style
  • Modern Language Association 6th edition (note) style
  • Mohr Siebeck - Recht (German - Austria) style
  • Molecular Plant style
  • Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair style
  • Obesity style
  • Pädagogische Hochschule Heidelberg (German) style
  • Pediatric Anesthesia style
  • Plant Physiology style
  • Population, Space and Place style
  • Quaderni degli Avogadro Colloquia style
  • Revista de Biología Tropical (International Journal of Tropical Biology and Conservation) style
  • Séminaire Saint-Sulpice - Ecole Théologie (French) style
  • Springer Physics (numeric, brackets) style
  • Acta Pharmaceutica style
  • African Zoology style
  • AIDS style
  • American Journal of Health Behavior style
  • American Psychological Association 6th edition (Spanish/Español) style
  • Asian Studies Review style
  • Biochemical Journal style
  • Biophysical Journal style
  • BioTechniques style
  • Building Structure (Chinese) style
  • Carcinogenesis style
  • Cell style
  • Chest style
  • Chinese Std GB/T 7714-2005 (author-date, Chinese) style
  • Chinese Std GB/T 7714-2005 (numeric, Chinese) style
  • Clinical Otolaryngology style
  • Conservation Biology style
  • Current Protocols journals style
  • Ear and Hearing style
  • Économie et Statistique (French) style
  • Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata style
  • Ethics (for book reviews) style
  • Ethnobiology and Conservation style
  • European Journal of Pain style
  • European Journal of Political Research style
  • Eye style
  • Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment style
  • Geological Magazine style
  • Cite Them Right 10th edition - Harvard style
  • Harvard - Manchester Metropolitan University style
  • Harvard - University of Gloucestershire style
  • Harvard - University of Sunderland style
  • Inflammatory Bowel Diseases style
  • Irish Historical Studies style
  • ISO-690 (full note, Slovak) style
  • Journal of Basic Microbiology style
  • Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology style
  • Journal of Investigative Dermatology style
  • Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing style
  • Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association style
  • Journal of the American Society of Nephrology style
  • Journal of Transport Geography style
  • Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine style
  • Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie (German) style
  • Language style
  • Modern Humanities Research Association 3rd edition (note with bibliography) style
  • Modern Language Association 7th edition (German/Deutsch) style
  • Molecular Biology of the Cell style
  • Nature Publishing Group Vancouver style
  • Natureza & Conservação (Brazilian Journal of Nature Conservation) (Portuguese - Brazil) style
  • Navigation style
  • O.W. Barth Verlag (German) style
  • Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy style
  • PeerJ style
  • Physiological and Biochemical Zoology style
  • Politische Vierteljahresschrift (German) style
  • Presses Universitaires de Rennes (French) style
  • Revista Argentina de Antropologia Biologica (Spanish) style

In this presentation, you will learn the basics of how to create footnotes and a Reference List, in the Oxford style of referencing.

  What is the Oxford style of referencing?

 Oxford is a citation style that uses footnotes at the bottom of the page rather than in the in-text citation styles used by Harvard and A.P.A.

In the Oxford style a superscript number is inserted at the point in your essay where you cite an author’s work.  It sits slightly above the line of text.

Superscript numbers should be placed at the end of a sentence, and follow any punctuation marks.

At the bottom of the same page repeat the superscript number then follow it with the full details; including the page number, of the author's work you are citing.

Start your footnote numbering at number and continue the sequence throughout your essay.

If you are frequently citing a particular work in your essay, give the full details of the work in your first footnote. In subsequent footnotes for this work, use the shortened format of: author surname, abbreviated title and the page number. See footnotes 1 and 6 in the example shown here for the shortened footnote format. In your footnotes, the author’s First initial precedes the surname i.e. N. Faulkner.

 Direct quotes under 30 words included in the body of your essay are enclosed in single inverted commas, and followed immediately with a superscript number, that refers to a footnote at the bottom of your page. If you use a long quotation of 30 words or more the quote should be indented, and the superscript number should be placed at the end of the quotation.

 As a rule it is better to cite a document from a website instead of a whole website in your essay.

 A Reference List only includes items you have referenced in your assignment. They are listed on a separate page at the end of your assignment titled: Reference List, and are arranged in Alphabetical order by author’s surname, then a comma, then the first initial.

 Please note that the footnote entries are arranged in a different order: the author’s first initial comes first then a full stop and then the surname.

 How to insert a superscript number into a word document. In Word select “References” from the top tabs, then select “Insert footnote”.

For further assistance, refer to the Oxford Referencing Guide OR contact us through ‘Ask a Librarian’.

 (Video ends)

 

 

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